Tagged: RC Boats

RC General Buying Decisions

veh1Radio controlled vehicles/craft can be fairly cleanly divided into two categories, toy and hobby-level. The toy type are what most people think of when you mention “RC” — buy-and-drive playthings that you can purchase from a toy or electronics store. These are made strictly for the sake of fun. Then there are the more sophisticated and capable models targeted towards hobbyists who want to go faster, tinker with settings and upgrades, and perhaps participate in one of the many levels of established competitive events. Neither class of RC is necessarily “better” — they each have their positive and negative qualities. However, when you’re first starting out, it’s very worthwhile to choose which way you want to go up front, long before you pull out your credit card. This article presents the most important facts that can help you make an informed decision.                                                                                                                                            

Cost

Toy R/C cars & trucks that you can buy at places like Toys R Us or Walmart start at $20-25 USD, and the most extreme ones top out around $150. Toy R/C planes start at around $30. When you step up to the hobby level, you’ll be hard pressed to find something complete for under $130. It’s very easy to spend $400-500 on a 1/10th scale car or truck that will last awhile, and a fully upgraded rig can easily shoot up to $2,000-3,000 USD.

Speed

In most cases, there’s really no comparison between the performance of toy and hobby-level RCs. Most toy cars & trucks will go anywhere from 5mph to 15mph, with the fastest few doing 20-24mph. Hobby-level RCs generally start at 15-25mph for electrics and 25-35mph for nitro versions. You can get monster trucks that will do over 40mph out of the box, and low-slung street cars that will do over 60 with no upgrades or modifications. In planes, the toys generally go around 5-15mph, while there are hobby-class craft that will do 30, 50, even 80mph in factory stock form. The most extreme speed differences are in boats. The toys often putt and crawl along at 1-5mph, while the hottest hobby-level racing boats will skim the surface at over 100mph

Durability

Mostly because they’re slow, toy RCs tend to handle more abuse than their more expensive cousins. The most common things to break are bumpers and body trim. The land and water-borne vehicles are built with a lot more material than is necessary, while aircraft tend to be constructed of foam and flexible plastics that bounce back after being bent. However…

When they break…

Repairing a toy RC is sometimes not worth the time & effort. Nearly all use multifunction circuit boards that combine several major functions, so if something goes electrically wrong, you have to change out the whole thing. Most manufacturers don’t have a factory service program, so you have to do the work yourself. Many don’t even offer a way to order new parts. Nikko is a notable exception. You can call them, tell them exactly what vehicle you have, describe the problem, and order precisely the part(s) you need. Many RC’s available at Radio Shack are actually from Nikko and are covered by this same level of support, with the additional convenience of being able to go back to the store and special-order your parts in person.

Fixing hobby-level RCs is, in most cases, a completely different affair. You can disassemble anything yourself. With most popular brands there are manuals and exploded views. There are service departments that handle returns of defective components. Electronics are, with rare exception, separated by function so that you don’t have to change your speed controller if your radio receiver crystal goes bad. Parts are available at brick-and-mortar hobby shops and dozens of trusted, popular web sites. There are online forums (message boards) where you can ask other hobbyists for advice and learn from their experience. veh2

Upgradability

These days, ever more toy RCs have upgrades available for purchase from the original manufacturer, particularly amongst the smaller “micro” cars and trucks. These upgrades can range from different body kits to stickier tires to faster motors. They’re generally very easy to install, requiring at most a small screwdriver (which is often included) and 15 minutes, and can dramatically change the look or performance of the vehicle. They’re also great fun to install and let the owner add a bit of their own personality.

The most popular hobby RCs may have literally hundreds of upgrades available from many different aftermarket sources (companies other than the original manufacturer). Among the available upgrades may be anything from scale-realistic wheels to anodized aluminum struts in various colors to larger motors/engines to total conversion kits that fundamentally change the vehicle. Many hobby-level RC parts are reusable from one vehicle to another, especially electronic components and motors/engines. Popular RC models come with the support of other owners nationwide or around the world who share their experiences, tips, and home-grown modifications freely on the Internet.

Controllability

Toy radio systems traditionally give you forward/reverse (or up/down) and left/right direction control. A growing number of cars & trucks these days now have “digital proportional” steering to boot, which gives you a number of steps between neutral and full turning, depending upon how far you turn the wheel or push the stick on the radio transmitter. Some, though, only let you go straight forward or to turn one pre-set direction in reverse. Toy helicopters are what you have to watch out for the most, as these sometimes give you only one axis of control — go straight up, or come straight down. Most toy RC’s are still only available on two frequencies (e.g., 27mhz and 49mhz in the US), with a few now offering 3 to 6 possibilities. This limits the number of vehicles that can run at one time, but more unfortunately it reduces the possibility of even being able to run two random vehicles together.

Hobby-class radio systems give you 64 to 256 (or more) steps of control in each direction for what feels like perfectly smooth turning & throttle control. These systems can also be easily changed between anywhere from 6 to 30 different frequencies, so even if the one person you want to race against or fly with has an absolutely identical radio setup, for around $20 and with a one-minute part swap, you’re both in the clear. Still better, the most recent generation of radio systems, while expensive, operate on an extremely high frequency and use small computer chips to automatically search for and lock onto an open channel, ensuring that you’ll never have a frequency conflict.

Raceability

Toy RCs can be raced between siblings or friends around the neighborhood, but there’s generally no sanctioned racing. Hobby-level RCs are raced around the world in local, regional, national, and even international events, even including multi-track tours.

Ownership

When all is said and done, the purchase decision between toy & hobby-level RCs should always come down to who the purchase is being made for. You don’t want to buy a $390, 45mph nitro-powered car for a 6-year-old. Likewise, a 16-year-old who wants to get into RC racing for sport wouldn’t be well-served by a $39 toy. What’s really interesting is the 26-year-old with a $25 micro-sized monster truck who would derive hours of fun from chasing his/her cat around the kitchen floor or gingerly driving around a makeshift desktop obstacle course during lunchtime at work. Before you buy an RC, know who you’re buying it for and do a little research. That extra time spent up front could make the difference between tremendous fun and awkward disappointment. Credits: http://www.beginningrc.com/ http://

RC Sailboating 101

A Basic Guide to Wind-Powered Boating                                                                    For anyone who might be interested in RC sailing it can sometimes be difficult to determine such things as what kind of sailboat to start out with, how to set it up and then how to best enjoy it on the water. Only a small percentage of hobby dealers are RC sailing savvy; so, this article will focus-on giving the novice sailor all of the information required to choose his/her’s first wind-powered marine craft.

SIZE/TRANSPORT NOTES
Since RC sail craft are available in many shapes that feature different mast/keel layouts, the beginner will need to first figure-out what size yacht will fit his/her lifestyle. If you have a small vehicle and limited storage space at home, a 20 to 30-inch long hull with an easily detachable mast/sails and a detachable lower keel may best suit your needs. If you choose a larger hull with an equally long mast and keel, it will take-up a lot more vehicle trunk volume; plus, more pre-sail assembly at the lake. Now if your local sailing location has any amount of submerged vegetation, a hull with a shorter-length lower keel will help prevent any weed buildup problems on the underside of the boat. As for the mast/sail layouts available, most kit/RTR boats use a two-piece mast to ease transport and the lower keel mounts in a recess in the hull bottom and it’s retained by a single thumb nut on the deck of the hull.sail1     KIT VS. RTR
Until recently the only way to start out in RC sailing would involve building a kit boat made-up from either a wood, fiberglass or molded plastic hull. Today both plastic and fiberglass RTR yachts are commonplace; so, you can now choose between constructing your first sail craft from a kit or by going with an almost-ready-to-run sailboat. If you’ve had some previous RC car/aircraft experience and have enough workspace, a sailboat kit from such companies as Victor Model Products, Thunder Tiger, Kyosho and Graupner can be built using regular hobby tools, adhesives and paints. To complete the majority of these kits you’ll only need to roundup a stick-style, two-channel surface radio with two servos, one of which will need to be a high-torque model to control the movement of the jib/main sails on the mast.servo1In the event you decide to go with a RTR sailboat, Pro Boat, AquaCraft and several of the kit makers listed above all sell preassembled yachts that are suitable for the novice sailor. In most cases, these RTR boats come from their boxes with only the need to install the pre-rigged mast and sails, attach the keel unit and assemble the hull’s support stand. Adding some batteries to the boat’s radio system will finish-up the yacht’s basic buildup as you can then check/trim the rudder and sail movements on the prepped hull. Once rigged at lakeside, you’ll want to make sure that all of the vessel’s mast and sail control lines are properly attached and tensioned as indicated in the owner’s manual. Then make a quick range check of the powered-up radio system to make sure that the sails and rudder run through their full range of motions. At this juncture you can launch your new sailboat and the fun of learning how to use the wind to “power” your hull can begin.                                                                     servo2A typical yacht’s onboard radio compartment will contain two servos, one of which will only need to be a regular-output unit for rudder control while the other will be a more high-torque servo to properly manage the movement of the sails.    First runs: Depending on the wind’s direction across the water you’ll find that by letting out the sails (moving the left stick on the transmitter upwards) will “catch” the air and this is what’s called running downwind or with the wind. To sail in the opposite direction (towards the wind) you’ll have to steer the hull at an angle to the air which is “tacking” and this technique will have less sail extension than the downwind transmitter stick settings. If you steer the boat’s bow directly into the wind it’ll likely just sit there which is to put the yacht “in irons” and the sailor will have to let the bow swing to one side to again get air in the sails. An important factor to sailing in either wind condition is that you must have enough forward hull speed to maintain the flow of water past the rudder blade as this will allow you to turn the hull whenever needed. It will take some time to master the balance between wind speed, sail settings and hull angles to the wind; but, in only a short time the novice will be able to maneuver his/her yacht no matter which direction the air is moving.                                                                                                   sail2Should you decide to put your yacht in competition, many sailboat clubs include kit and RTR hull classes in their race programs and with their sometimes tight rule packages you’ll have close racing like this in your future.              Sail support: Like all RC activities model sailing is more fun with a group of boaters and it’s not hard to locate other sailing enthusiasts that might reside near your home. The American Model Yachting Association’s website features a nice club directory to help you pinpoint and contact fellow sailors in your area and you can also use the site to help look for any yacht hardware or racing rules that apply to your brand boat. Custom sails, servos, etc. are all found in the suppliers listing while the rules guidelines section will tell just what modifications on your hull should you decide to try your hand at sailboat racing. Many current RTR and kitted sailing hulls regularly compete throughout the country and the sport sailor can learn a lot of useful running tips from those who race the very same sail craft as the one bought by the beginner. The adaptability of most RC yachts make them fun because both the sport and competitive sailor alike can upgrade their hull’s setup to improve the boat’s on water performance and do it for only a small outlay from their RC budget.sail3 When running your boat against the wind, moving the left stick downward on the transmitter will move the sails closer to the center of the hull and by combining this action with running the vessel sideways to the wind you’ll “tack” the sailboat until you’re ready to swing downwind again.                                                                                                                                                                             

SAIL POINTS
• Always apply a drop of CA glue to each rigging cord knot to prevent any mast/sail spillage in breezy conditions.

• When rigging the hull lakeside, keep the boat out of direct winds or simply lay it on the grass to avoid a blow over.

• Remember, a setup sailboat doesn’t like to be anywhere near a running ceiling fan.

• Braided fishing line (with the same outside diameter) can be used to repair/replace any mast or sail lines.

• Be sure to take a folding chair to the lake because the average yacht can sail for a minimum of two hours.

• Since most of a sailboat’s weight is in the keel, carrying it by the lower keel will be the most stress-free way to launch/retrieve it at the lake.                                                                                                                         WRAP UP
Equally suited to anyone looking for a quiet way to unwind from work or to experience a new style of RC boat racing, today’s selection of RTR/kit yachts can easily fit the requirements of the first-time sailor. Capable of conforming to any boater’s storage, transport and local sailing conditions a RC sail craft will only demand a simple cleanup and battery recharging between trips to the lake to enjoy some more wind-driven boating fun.trans1A regular two-stick surface transmitter is used to control sailboats with the left stick being used for sail movement while the right stick sends commands to the hull’s rudder blade.                                                     Credits: Tony Phalen and http://www.rcboatmag.com/  http:// http://

RC Boating Basics

       While RC airplanes and cars tend to get the majority of modelers’ attention, there is another area of RC that can be just as much, if not even more fun than both. RC boats provide a totally different experience than flying a plane or driving a car on many different levels. There are boats for everyone from performance enthusiasts, casual sailing fans, those who love the detailed runabouts of years gone by and more. Besides the aesthetics of individual boats, there are other considerations to think about such as battery or fuel power, to build or buy a Ready-To-Run boat and more.

Hull Styles:
When talking about the performance and handling of a particular boat, the configuration of the hull will have enormous impact on the overall performance and handling of a boat on the water. When talking about the different types of hulls there are several different configurations commonly used in RC boats that we’re going to discuss. They are, in no particular order Deep-Vs, catamarans, sailboats and Minis.boat14        Deep-Vs are one of the most popular hull style for boats and are capable of tremendously high speeds. A Deep-V gets its name after the look and profile of the hull’s distinctive V-shape. This hull configuration relies on hull strakes for improved stability and cornering ability, and its Deep-V design helps the boat absorb the impact of bigger waves on rough water. In addition, the V-shape causes the boat to bank in the turns to assist turning. When you jump on the throttle with a Deep-V, the nose will typically come out of the water and as the boat gets on plane, it will ride on the rear 1/3 of the hull. boat15       Catamarans have been modeled after off-shore race boats and, due to their wider hull footprint acting as 2 sponsons, provide additional positive stability when compared to a Deep-V. The additional hull surface in the water provides the handling improvements and increased stability. While it is more stable, the fact that a catamaran has more of its hull in the water translates into increased drag and slightly reduced top speed.  boat16       For the best in relaxation, sailboats offer the lowest maintenance and are very fulfilling in regards to boat-handling skills. With no power other than the wind, skills must be honed to learn how to adjust the sails to take best advantage of wind currents. There is nothing like tacking into the wind, seemingly defying the wind direction.                                                            boat17       When you want to drive a boat but you don’t have access to a huge piece of open water, a mini boat is the perfect option. Minis are smaller than other boats, but they feature similar handling and performance characteristics of their larger cousins. Minis are available as RTRs that require very little preparation time to get on the water and provide an inexpensive and economical way for someone to get their feet wet in the world of RC boating. Some mini boats can even be driven in swimming pools if you need to get your boating fix in a snap.                                                          boat18       While fuel-powered boats used to rule the roost recent advancements in motor and battery technology has swung the pendulum in favor of electric boats. Electric boats also provide simple, plug-and-play operation. When you want to drive your boat, all you need to do is charge up the battery pack, plug it in, and you’re ready to go. There are two different electric power types that a boat can use, brushed or brushless. Brushed motor systems provide a good place for people to get their feet wet in RC boating, so-to-speak, without breaking the bank. Brushed motor systems are a little slower and less expensive but still provide decent power and runtimes. Brushless motor systems provide more power, requires less maintenance than brushed motors and can handle a higher voltage level. With brushless motor systems you’ll see an increase in acceleration and top speed while also being more efficient than their brushed counterparts. With some brushless motor systems they can handle over 22-volts! Now that’s some serious power!                                                            boat19       Gasoline-powered boats use basically the same gasoline that your full-size car uses, making refueling relatively inexpensive and easy. There is one difference between what your car runs on and what an RC boat utilizes for fuel. RC boats run off of a gasoline and oil mixture, very similar to what you might use in a gas leaf blower or string trimmer. Boats that run off of gasoline engines are larger and use a larger displacement engine than their nitro-powered cousins. Regardless of whether you decide to go with a nitro- or gasoline-powered boat, you will find that, generally speaking, fuel-powered boats offer extended run times when compared to battery-powered boats. Fuel-powered boats also offer the intangible sensation of the realistic sound produced by the engine as it rips across the water’s surface, adding to the experience and excitement. The engine noise could possibly eliminate some ponds and streams from consideration as areas to drive in.                              boat20       Much like the advancements to the power systems we’ve seen some solid improvements in the realm of RC transmitters and receivers. 27Mhz and 75Mhz radio systems have, for the most part, been replaced with 2.4GHz systems. With 2.4GHz systems you will be less prone to interference from other sources and you don’t need to worry about frequency conflicts like in years past. Spektrum’s 2.4GHz Marine Technology also adds in the extra safety of an integrated cut-off to prevent runaways.                                                                                                                                              boat21       As with all mechanical devices, inevitably some maintenance or repairs must occur. There are several key tools that you should have on hand at all times in case you need to perform basic maintenance, repairs and tuning. Whether it’s a kit, ARR, or RTR, there should be a small plastic baggie that includes a basic assortment of tools and Allen wrenches. These tools tend to work for a while, but the metal they’re made out of is relatively soft. After several uses, the heads of the wrenches can round off, making getting a good bite on a screw head a real pain. Invest in a good hobby-grade set of Allen wrenches and nut drivers. You’ll realize their value the first time you use them. Dynamite carries a wide variety of hand tools to make these jobs go as smoothly as possible. These sets come in the most popular sizes used in RC and are as durable as they are affordable. From Allen wrenches and nut drivers to glow drivers and accessories, Dynamite has the right tools for the job. Other key tools for your box should include things such as a tuning screwdriver for making needle adjustments on your engine, needle-nose pliers, fuel bottle, glow igniter (also known as a glow driver) and extra glow plugs.                                                                                                                                                                               boat22       Both electric and nitro boats can make use of a battery charger. Obviously electrics will need to have their main batteries charged, but rechargeable batteries are used in nitro boats too. From the batteries for hand-held starters to receiver packs, having a good charger can make it easier to run your boat. Timer chargers will save you money, but don’t provide quite as complete of a charge. Peak detection chargers cost a little more but feature circuitry to ensure your battery pack is brought to a complete charge safely.
If you are planning on purchasing an electric-powered boat, some RTRs may require you to purchase a battery pack and a battery charger. You may even need to purchase these items for a nitro boat as well, especially if your nitro boat includes some sort of electric or hand starter. There are several things to consider when purchasing a battery pack. One of the biggest things to consider is the type of battery you will use, be it LiPo or NiMH. NiMH batteries are less expensive and provide solid performance. NiMH packs do tend to have a sharper discharge curve, meaning the speed and performance difference between the start and end of a run tends to be greater. You also have performance declines from one run to another in a day commonly. Another option would be to go with LiPo battery packs. LiPo batteries are lighter weight than NiMH packs and have a flatter discharge curve, meaning the performance from start to finish is more consistent. LiPo batteries also don’t have performance degradation issues like NiMH packs have.
Another consideration with LiPo battery packs is what is called the “C” rating. The C-rating of a battery refers to the amperage discharge capability of a particular battery. The higher the C-rating of a pack the more load it can handle without issue. You can always go with a higher C-rated battery for a boat but you never want to go with a lower C-Rating. For most boats a 30C rating or higher is sufficient.
Finally you’ll want to consider the capacity of your battery. Capacity refers to the amount of run time per charge each type of pack is capable of. A higher milliamp rating, or mAh, will translate into a long time between charges. For example a 3300mAh battery would run out of power before a 4200mAh battery pack. You can adjust the capacity up or down without issue, the only difference would be how long the battery runs before it needs to be recharged.                                                                                            Credits: proboatmodels.com and 

6/7/2012 by

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Model Warship Combat

Model warship combat is an international club activity, in which participants construct radio-controlled scale models of actual warships, most commonly those built by various nations during the early portion of the 20th century prior to 1946 such as the USS Des Moines, HMS Dreadnought or German battleship Bismarck. These models are armed with pneumatic cannons, and fight against one another on ponds and lakes. Model warship combat is sometimes considered to be a form of Naval Wargaming, but can also be considered a water-based version of Robot Combat since much of the internal systems and concepts are the same with similar radio control electronics, and in some cases possess similar pneumatics systems.

The sport is predominately divided into ‘Big Gun’ and ‘Fast Gun’ (or ‘Small Gun’) clubs. Both ‘Big Gun’ and ‘Fast Gun’ formats host annual national/international inter-club events. There is one major ‘Fast Gun’ club, the International Radio Control Warship Combat Club (IRCWCC). As of January 2015, the other major club, Model Warship Combat, Incorporated (MWCI) has been dissolved, and its members are being incorporated into IRCWCC. IRCWCC hosts a yearly week-long national event, “Nats”, where the fleets, divided up by historical alliances, (Allied and Axis), wage war against each other. Which ever team has the most points at the end of the week, wins that year’s Nationals. ‘Big Gun’ battlers have the annual event known as the North American Big Gun Open (NABGO),[1] and – since 2008 – the annual Big Gun Robotic Warship Combat open invitational at California Maker Faire.[2]
The Australian Battle Group (AUSBG) has two annual National Battles, held in January and June.              ship3 http://amzn.to/22rOrBO

History

Radio controlled combat of warships owes its popularity to a small group of men living in Texas (USA) in the late 1970s. The founding fathers of the hobby are Stan Watkins, D.W. Fluegel, and Jeff Poindexter. Back in the day, these men “toyed” with the idea of using radio controlled ships and equipping them with some kind of cannon so that they could then engage in combat.[3]

After much efforts, Stan created the “Mark I” cannon using an odd variety of plumbing parts and pieces. In those days, freon was used as a propelling agent and often their engagements resulted in little if any damage. After some time, and more engineering, they were able to “sink” an opponent in combat by shooting steel balls through balsa hulls. Organized groups formed very quickly after this achievement, with the formation of the IRCWCC, and Big Gun groups starting up in 1982 with the formation of NASWCA.[4]

Complete Mk I gun system 1977.

The iron pipe fittings formed the Freon 22 tank to power the gun operation. The small water valves were used to fill the tank and to supply pressure to the o ring “spool valve. When the gun was not in the fire position, the o ring separated the pressure source from the gun magazine hose. When the radio control unit was activated the servo moved the spool valve to the position that allowed the freon to flow from the tank to the gun magazine hose. As the magazine was pressurized, the BBs flowed into the restrictor tube until the pressure built high enough to force the BBs through the restrictor and out of the barrel. The exit velocity of the BBs was enough to enable the BBs to punch holes in the model ship’s 1/32 inch hull skin. This linear magazine and barrel assembly was not able to fit a small model ship’s gun turret. To improve scale appearance, a brass elbow fitting was added to reduce the above deck size of the gun. This enabled the magazine to exit the deck vertically into the base leg of the elbow. This was the reason for development of the new Mk II breach/barrel assembly. The first of these was installed on (Stan Watkins) earlier constructed model of the USS Arizona (l/144 scale). The BBs (about 100) were loaded into the clear hose. When the gun pressured the hose, BBs would feed into the smaller clear plastic tubing behind the barrel brass tubing. The pressure would build until the BBs could blast through the small (restrictor) tubing and out the barrel. At that point, they had adequate power to penetrate the 1/32 balsa hull skin. Numbers of BBs would “spurt” out. To get more than one spurt, the warship combatant had to rapidly close the spool valve after the start of the spurt. This was possible since the Freon feed hoses were small and had low flow.[5]

From this inauspicious beginning and after years of technological advances, the hobby has improved dramatically in both reliability and playability. Many different groups having formed, fighting scale model warships ranging from the reasonably rare 1:48 scale to the most common 1:144 scale, with different and largely regional variations on the rules used. ship2 http://amzn.to/22rOrBO

Design conventions and model construction

Extensive design conventions exist to provide that the fighting effectiveness under various conditions remain proportional to the prototype vessels. These conventions also dictate safety features [6] as well as mandating design features to allow for recovery of defeated vessels.[6]

The model warships are fully workable, with small electric motors or servo-operated sails for propulsion,[6]working steering systems actuated typically using servos, and are generally armed with self-reloading pneumaticcannons.

The models cannot be purchased as many scale models can, from a company, with everything in one box. They always include a degree of scratch building. There are, however, several suppliers that sell many of the necessary parts for construction. For example, Strike Models, and Battlers Connection.

Mechanical systems

While many models use a combination of switches and/or relays physically actuated by servos to control the propulsion system, most newer models now use either Electronic Speed Control units or solid-state switching boards such as those found in Robot combat, greatly reducing the complexity of the wiring of the propulsion system as well as overall complexity of design. Propulsion is achieved through the use of electric motors coupled to shafts passing through stuffing tubes driving semi-scale propellers. All active mechanical systems are required to be operated via electrical or pneumatic means. Banned are any and all mechanisms relying upon chemical combustion which could contaminate the water with fuels, oils, and other biologically toxic chemicals.[6]

Weapons systems

Cannons use steel balls ranging from .177″ to .25″ in diameter as projectiles, and typically CO2 or compressed air is used as the working gas for propellant. As of 2009, a small handful of small Big Gun ships were equipped with cannons powered by compression springs. In Big Gun combat, club rules frequently include provisions for the arming of torpedoes, represented through the use of fixed cannon firing 0.25″ diameter projectiles.[7]Although individuals have attempted to construct self-propelled 0.25″ diameter torpedoes, they have yet to be formally documented or demonstrated in use. Additionally, vendors have demonstrated working prototypes of weapons control systems suitable for Big Gun combat to enable multiple turrets on a single vessel to be coordinated as a single weapons battery to produce converging weapons fire at a given vector and range from the vessel so equipped. Pyrotechnics are specifically prohibited from use for weapons to protect the safety of people and animals in addition to preventing environmental contamination.[6]

Cannon types

  • Arizona Cannon/Single Barrel Gun System – easy to manufacture cannon named after one of the first model ships in which it was successfully implemented [8][9]
  • Ball-bearing interrupter – one or two steel balls in-line with the gas supply line interrupts the feed of ammunition into the breech, ensuring that only one projectile is fired at a time
  • JC White Rotating Cannon – first widely successful multi-barrel rotating turret [10]
  • JC White Torpedo cannon – similar to the rotating cannon without the rotating magazine on top [11]
  • Indiana Cannon – a refinement of the JC White Rotating Cannon [10] so named due to the US State in which it was first manufactured. Evolution of the JC White design into the Indiana Cannon marked the point at which the design encountered widespread adoption in the Big Gun format.
  • Jam elbow – [12]
  • Negative pressure/Quick Exhaust Valve – Typically uses a Clippard Exhaust Valve in its construction and relies upon a discharge of pressure from a pneumatic control circuit to actuate the cannon.[13]
  • O-ring breech –
  • Piston interrupter – a “piston” in-line with the gas supply line interrupts the feed of ammunition into the breech, ensuring that only one projectile is fired at a time[14][15]
  • Sliding breech –
  • Spring-loaded breech – [16]
  • Spring-fired/Spring-powered cannon – instead of directly utilizing exclusively compressed gas to impart kinetic energy to the projectile, a spring affixed to a piston to compress gas in a chamber or a spring directly acting on the projectile is used.
  • Spurt cannon – a spurt cannon is a type of fast gun cannon that lacks a mechanism to interrupt feeding of steel balls into the breech. Subsequently, it will continuously fire until either the supply of ammunition or compressed gas is depleted. ship 1 http://amzn.to/22rOrBO

Cannon configuration

  • Depressing – due to concerns for safety and the goal of inflicting damage to an opposing ship at or below the waterline, cannon can be configured to incorporate negative elevation with an adjustable mechanism
  • Fixed – Fixed cannon cannot be trained, requiring the captain to maneuver the ship to bring them to bear on a target instead.
  • Rotating – To enable a ship to bring the maximum possible firepower to bear on a given target, cannon can be equipped with a mechanism to facilitate rotation if the corresponding cannon on the real ship were so equipped. Additionally, cannon rotation permit a ship to continue to fire upon a target while maneuvering, potentially increasing the number of successful hits within a given period of time. While uncommon in Fast Gun due to a combination of complexity and limited tactical benefit, cannon rotation is common in the Big Gun format.[17]

Ammunition magazine configuration

  • Straight-magazine — Steel ball ammunition is housed in a relatively straight length of rigid or flexible tubing and can be gravity or force-fed into the cannon breech.
  • Coil-magazine – Ammunition is housed in tubing as with the straight-magazine configuration; however, the magazine tubing is tightly coiled, sometimes around the cannon riser and/or valve so as to reduce the longitudinal volume required for the cannon. Ammunition can be gravity or force-fed into the cannon breech.
  • Canister-magazine – In a canister-magazine configuration, ammunition is housed within a cylindrical chamber integrated into the cannon body. Ammunition is typically gravity-fed into the cannon breech.

Structure

While some early vessels were built in 1/150 scale, scales have become standardized with the most common construction scale of 1:144, although 1:96, 1:72 and 1:48 scale modeling groups also do exist. The majority of hulls are constructed from either fiberglass (with penetration windows cut into it), or scratch built with wood ribs. The exteriors of the ship’s hulls are sheeted with balsa wood, which allows the relatively low velocity cannon projectiles to penetrate them to let in some water, with the idea of sinking the model if the on board bilge pumps can’t compensate for the rate at which water enters the hull.[6] Superstructures are often constructed with a combination of lightweight wood, plastic sheet, thermoset plastic resins, and corrosion-resistant metals. Smaller vessels such as light cruisers and destroyers often incorporate less-durable but lighter superstructure construction in order to maximize the displacement available for weapons systems. Other than the balsa skin, the models typically escape real damage, and can be patched and turned around in typically 15–30 minutes.

Combat formats

Campaign

Instead of a single battle, multiple battles or sorties are combined to form a campaign of combat events, sometimes with a preceding battle dictating the available of rearming opportunities afforded to a team in the succeeding battle. A campaign can also consist of multiple objective-oriented battles or team free-for-all battles.

Free-for-all

Typically held in sessions divided by vessel combat units or combat value, during a free-for-all, each captain operates his or her vessel to sink or damage as many of the other vessels on the water as possible while minimizing the damage incurred. It is often played in a “last-man-standing” format where the winning vessel is identified simply as the last to sink or be disabled.

Objective

Objective format combat is typically executed in the form of a scenario, requiring that each team accomplish specific objectives to earn points and/or win the scenario. Such combat may involve sides of asymmetrical strength, such as when attempting to simulate a recreation of a historic battle.

Team free-for-all

A common combat format across the different model warship combat formats, team free-for-all involves the division of players present into two teams that are equal based upon a combat strength rubric (i.e. units in Fast Gun or a combination of displacement tonnage and cannon count in Big Gun) which then sortie against each other in accordance with the club’s rules and scoring system.

Club formats

Big Gun

File:NTXBG’s Richelieu and Missouri duke it out.JPG

NTXBG’s Richelieu and Missouriduke it out on the water

File:Kagero Stern Damage.jpg

Kagero (1/72 scale) stern damage

Unlike Fast Gun clubs, Big Gun clubs operate based upon a loose confederation, with each club reserving the ability to establish and maintain its own rules, provided that they coincide with the spirit of Big Gun Model Warship Combat. With versions in 1/48, 1/72, 1/96, and 1/144 scale, Big Gun Model Warship combat clubs have rules that make provisions for cannon caliber and armor thickness to be scaled according to that which existed on the prototype vessel. Big Gun Model Warships allow weapons to be installed in rotating turrets as they were mounted as the prototype historically.[6][18][19] Damage Control is accomplished via a centrifugal bilge pump capable pumping a regulated volume of water out of the hull. The volume allowed is based on the prototype ship’s displacement. Typically the flow rate varies from 30 gallons per hour (GPH) for the smallest ships to 90GPH for the largest ships.[6][18][19]

Big Gun clubs are largely descended from the now defunct “North American Warship Combat Association” (NASWCA) dating back to late 1981/early 1982.[3][4]

Fast/Small Gun

Principally known as Fast Gun by its members due to few restrictions on rate of fire, this format is sometimes also identified as Small Gun because of its exclusive use of .177″ (BB) caliber guns. About 80% of active clubs are of the fast gun variety, in which all ships are built in 1/144 scale and use .177″ caliber guns, which in most cases are installed in fixed mounts but may rotate depending upon ship class. Additionally, all ships are fitted with a standardized 1/32″ thick balsa wood ‘Armor’ to yield an easily penetrable hull. Damage control is accomplished through the use of centrifugal bilge pumps fitted with either a 1/8″ or 1/16″ diameter flow restricter. The clubs that follow this format of combat include the International Radio-Controlled Warship Combat Club (IRCWCC) and Model Warship Combat, Incorporated (MWCI).

A subset or adaptation of small gun is known as Treaty Combat. Treaty Combat, also abbreviated simply as Treaty, incorporates uniform caliber weapons, armor, and combat units in a way similar to that defined in IRCWCC or MWCI rules; however, speeds and pump capacities are limited based upon the prototype vessel and displacement, respectively. Thus, Treaty Combat incorporates some of the reduced-cost aspects of the Fast Gun format with some of the scaled characteristics of Big Gun.                   Credits: http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Main_Page                                                                         http:// http://  Join Amazon Prime – Watch Thousands of Movies & TV Shows Anytime – Start Free Trial Now

Boating Racing Rules and Etiquette

Things You Should Know Before You Head to the Starting Line

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

Stirring up the local pond with your favorite RC boat is a great way to spend the day. Doing it with a friend or two is even better when you can race for bragging rights. If you and your buddies are the competitive types then naturally you’ll eventually want to find organized boat races in your area. Something to keep in mind is that two or three guys on a pond is very different from up to ten boats competing for first place on a larger course. Elsewhere in this issue of RC BOAT you will find information on what to expect when you show up at a race event. Here we will focus on some of the rules you will need to be aware of before you take your place on the starting line for the first time.

There are two sanctioned organizations for boat racing and we have provided you with links and QR codes for these groups within the graphics on the next page. IMPBA is the International Model power Boat Association. NAMBA is the North American Model Boat Association. Organized events are likely to follow the rules for one of these two groups. Their courses are similar in size with the main difference being the number of buoys used to mark the turns.

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

GET FAMILIAR WITH THE COURSE
It’s likely that you didn’t have any buoys or other markers to navigate around on your local pond so it may take some getting used to the fact that you now have “lanes” to constrain your driving path. You’ll want to arrive at the event early enough to get some practice time in before the heats begin. The races are run clockwise on an oval course. The turns are marked with either three or five buoys, depending on which rules are followed, with an “invisible” arc connecting them. Drive at no more than half throttle as you learn to judge the distance between your boat and the turn buoys. Ultimately you want to be as close to this “line” as possible without crossing it to avoid any penalties. Your boat must maintain a straight line from one turn to the next. Swerving may add a level of fun on the local pond, but can result in a penalty on a race course. Coming out of the corners be careful not to oversteer into the center of the course. Drive this until you are comfortable with how you handle the entire course.

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

DRIVE WITH THE PACK
It’s one thing to master the course when you are the only one on it. It is another thing to master it with other boats around you. It is important to keep an eye on where they are and stay in control of your boat while navigating through the wake of others’ boats. It’s time to hone your peripheral vision and reactionary skills. Start with just one or two other boats if possible. Try to enlist the help of some of the experienced racers. Most are likely to be willing to help a newbie. Drive the course while in close proximity of the other boat(s). Begin by first following slightly to the rear and off to the right. Keep your focus on your boat while observing, anticipating and reacting to the movements of the others. If they sweep wide on the turn you need to sweep just a bit wider. As the distance between boats becomes greater you still need to remain conscious of their locations. This is where peripheral vision comes into play. Eventually you want to be able to shift your vision to the other boat briefly while keeping your boat in your peripheral view, but this will come with experience. It is critical to be aware of what is in front of you and to the sides at all times. Don’t worry about what’s behind you. It’s the responsibility of the drivers behind you to pay attention to what is in front of them.

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

INVISIBLE LANES AND LEGAL PASSING
There are indeed lanes, however the lines defining them are imaginary. They are basically as wide as the boats that occupy them. You are at the mercy of the race officials when it comes to lane infractions. At any given time the boat closest to the buoys has the inside lane. You are permitted to pass this boat and overtake the inside lane but always pass on the left (outside) and do not pull in front of the other boat until you are at least three boat lengths ahead. Four or five boat lengths will help avoid a penalty call if the officials don’t see the same three boat lengths that you did.

Changing lanes behind other boats require focus. You will have the boat’s wake to deal with so you should cross it at about a 45 degree angle to avoid upsetting your craft. Avoid the rooster tail of water being showered your way as well as this has the potential to make your boat unstable not to mention the possibility of water getting into the hull. If another boat has passed you and enters your lane as it approaches the turn, you may need to throttle back to let him in. You always want to play nice because the table could be turned on the next lap.

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

RACING INFRACTIONS
There are several ways to be penalized. Many are going to be based on the officials interpretation of what they saw. You may not always agree but you always need to smile and nod then move on. Some of the infractions are described with the graphics on these pages. You can have a penalty called for something as simple as cutting a buoy on the turn or something more serious like running into a dead boat. Sometimes you can get away with a warning for a lane infraction if no other boat was affected. Again, it is up to the individual race official. Each organization has its own set of rules and penalties so it’s best to download their rule books and familiarize yourself with them prior to entering a race. The more you know going in, the better off you will be once your names is on the roster.

Boat Racing Rules and Etiquette

FINAL THOUGHTS
The bottom line here is that racing can be a fun part of any aspect of the RC hobby. Just as with car and truck races there are rules you need to know, some official and some are just commons sense. Practice driving close with your buddies on the local pond because proper control is only learned through experience. Keep an open mind and remember this is all about having fun with a little competition. After all…these are basically toy boats. Keep the stress low and the fun high. Now go race something!                                                                               Credits:  Tony Phalen & rcboatmag.com http://Red Line Remote Control http://

WL913 Brushless Boat High Speed Racing RC Boat

http://www.banggood.com/Wltoys-913-Brushless-Boat-High-Speed-Racing-RC-Boat-p-970794.html?p=ZF22172657341201509Aboat11  Description:
Item No.: WL913
Battery: 7.4V/11.1V 2700MAH
Charging time: Approx. 200mins
Playing time: Approx. 5mins
Controlling distance: 150m
Battery for controller: 1.5AA*4pcs
Product size: 62*26.2*14cm
Boat Weight:1000g
Frequency: 2.4G
Material: ABS, PA, PC
Color: Yellow

Feature:
The Max Speed: 13.8m/s(50km/H)
The longer working time of brushless motor
Water-cooling system makes the longer life of boat

Package Included:
1 × Brushless Boat
1 × Controller
1 × Instruction
1 × Charger
1 × Spare part kits
1 × Boat Battery   http:/